Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2022)                   IBJ 2022, 26(1): 1-35 | Back to browse issues page

PMID: 34952558

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Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan Leishmania parasites that are transmitted through female sandfly bites. The disease is predominantly endemic to the tropics and semi-tropics and has been reported in more than 98 countries. Due to the side effects of anti-Leishmania drugs and the emergence of drug-resistant isolates, there is currently no encouraging prospect of introducing an effective therapy for the disease. Hence, it seems that the key to disease control management is the introduction of an effective vaccine, particularly against its cutaneous form. Advances in understanding underlying immune mechanisms are feasibale using a variety of candidate antigens, including attenuated live parasites, crude antigens, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins, Leishmania genes encoding protective proteins, as well as immune system activators from the saliva of parasite vectors. However, there is still no vaccine against different types of human leishmaniasis. In this study, we review the works conducted or being performed in this field.

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