Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2022)                   ibj 2022, 26(1): 1-35 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Abdellahi L, Iraji F, mahmoudabadi A, hejazi S H. Vaccination in Leishmaniasis: A Review Article. ibj. 2022; 26 (1) :1-35
URL: http://ibj.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-3523-en.html
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan Leishmania parasites that are transmitted through female sandfly bites. The disease is predominantly endemic to the tropics and semi-tropics and has been reported in more than 98 countries. Due to the side effects of anti-Leishmania drugs and the emergence of drug-resistant isolates, there is currently no encouraging prospect of introducing an effective therapy for the disease. Hence, it seems that the key to disease control management is the introduction of an effective vaccine, particularly against its cutaneous form. Advances in understanding underlying immune mechanisms are feasibale using a variety of candidate antigens, including attenuated live parasites, crude antigens, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins, Leishmania genes encoding protective proteins, as well as immune system activators from the saliva of parasite vectors. However, there is still no vaccine against different types of human leishmaniasis. In this study, we review the works conducted or being performed in this field.

1. Mcgwire BS, Satoskar AR. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment. QJM 2014; 107(1): 7-14. [DOI:10.1093/qjmed/hct116]
2. Alvar J, Ve'lez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of Its incidence. PloS one 2012; 7(5): e35671. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035671]
3. Mohebali M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Hajjaran H, Abaei MR. Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the islamic republic of Iran. Eastern mediterranean health journal 2004; 10(4-5): 591-599. [DOI:10.26719/2004.10.4-5.591]
4. Mirzaei A, Rouhani S, Taherkhani H,Farahmand M, Kazemi B, Hedayati M, Baghaei A, Davari B, Parvizi P. Isolation and detection of Leishmania species among naturally infected Rhombomis opimus, a reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkemen Sahara, North East of Iran. Experimental parasitology 2011; 129(4): 375-380. [DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2011.08.020]
5. Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O. Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology 2009; 136(14): 1915-1934. [DOI:10.1017/S0031182009991156]
6. Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis public health aspects and control. Clinics in dermatology 1996; 14(5): 417-423. [DOI:10.1016/0738-081X(96)00057-0]
7. Costa CH, Peters NC, Maruyama SR, Brito Jr EC, Santos IKF. Vaccines for the leishmaniases: pro-posals for a research agenda. Plos neglected tropical diseases 20011; 5(3): e943. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000943]
8. Osman M, Mistry A, Keding A, Gabe R, Cook E, Forrester S, Wiggins R, Di Marco S, Colloca S, Siani L, Cortese R, Smith DF, Aebischer T, Kaye PM, Lacey CJ . A third generation vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis: First-in-human trial of ChAd63-KH. PloS neglected tropical diseases 2017; 11(5): e0005527. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005527]
9. Duthie MS, Hoeven NV, MacMillen Z , Picone A, Mohamath R, Erasmus J, Hsu F-C, Stinchcomb DT, Reed SG. Heterologous immunization with defined RNA and subunit vaccines enhances T cell responses that protect against Leishmania donovani. Frontiers in immunology 2018; 9: 2420. [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02420]
10. Hide M, Bucheton B, Kamhawi S, Bras-Gonçalves R, Sundar S, Lemesre JL, Banuls AL. Understanding human leishmaniasis: the need for an integrated approach. Encyclopedia of infectious diseases 2007: 87-123. [DOI:10.1002/9780470114209.ch6]
11. Tripathi P, Singh V, Naik S. Immune response to leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology 2007; 51(2): 229-242. [DOI:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00311.x]
12. Scott P. Development and regulation of cell-mediated immunity in experimental leishmaniasis. Immunologic research 2003; 27(2-3): 489-498. [DOI:10.1385/IR:27:2-3:489]
13. Sengupta S, Chowdhury S, BoseDasgupta S, Wright CW, Majumder HK. Cryptolepine-induced cell death of Leishmania donovani promastigotes is augmented by inhibition of autophagy. Molecular biology international 2011; 2011: 187850. [DOI:10.4061/2011/187850]
14. Roy S, Dutta D, Satyavarapu EM, Yadav PK, Mandal C, Kar S, Mandal Ch. Mahanine exerts in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity by modulation of redox homeostasis. Scientific reports 2017; 7(1): 4141. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-03943-y]
15. Aghaei M, KhanAhmad H, Aghaei S, Nilforoushzadeh MA, Mohaghegh MA, Hejazi SH. The role of Bax in the apoptosis of Leishmania-infected macrophages. Microbial pathogenesis 2020; 139: 103892. [DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103892]
16. Aghaei M, Khanahmad H, Aghaei S, Hosseini SM, Farahmand M, Hejazi SH. Evaluation of transgenic Leishmania infantum expressing mLLO-BAX-SMAC in the apoptosis of the infected macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Parasite immunology 2020; 42(11): 12726. [DOI:10.1111/pim.12726]
17. Basmaciyan L, Azas N, Casanova M. A potential acetyltransferase involved in Leishmania major metacaspase-dependent cell death. Parasites and vectors 2019; 12(1): 266. [DOI:10.1186/s13071-019-3526-4]
18. Nagill R, Kaur S. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review. International mmunopharmacology 2011; 11(10): 1464-1488. [DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2011.05.008]
19. Thomaz-Soccol V, Ferreira da Costa ES, Karp SG, Junior Letti LA, Soccol FT, Soccol CR. Recent advances in vaccines against Leishmania based on patent applications. Recent patents on biotechnology 2018; 12(1): 21-32. [DOI:10.2174/1872208311666170510121126]
20. Lachaud L, Dedet JP, Marty P, Faraut F, Buffet P, Gangneux JP, Ravel C, Bastien P, Working group for the notification of human Leishmanioses in France. Euro surveillance 2013; 18(29): 20534. [DOI:10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.29.20534]
21. Chamaillé L, Tran A, Meunier A, Bourdoiseau G, Ready P, Dedet JP. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France. Parasites and vectors 2010; 3(1): 1-8. [DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-3-31]
22. Kedzierski L. Leishmaniasis vaccine: where are we today? Journal of global infectious diseases 2010; 2(2): 177 [DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.62881]
23. Mayrink W, Genaro O, Silva JCF, d Costa RT, Tafuri WL, Toledo VPC, d Silva AR, Reis AB, Williams P, d Costa CA. Phase I and II open clinical trials of a vaccine against Leishmania chagasi infections in dogs. Memórias do instituto oswaldo cruz 1996; 91 (6): 695-697. [DOI:10.1590/S0074-02761996000600006]
24. Lasri S, Sahibi H, Sadak A, Jaffe CL, Rhalem A. Immune responses in vaccinated dogs with autoclaved Leishmania major promastigotes. Veterinary research 1999; 30 (5):441-450.
25. Giunchetti RC, Corrêa-Oliveira R, Martins-Filho OA, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Roatt BM, de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares RD, De Souza JV, das Dores Moreira N, Malaquias LCC, e Castro LLM. Immunogenicity of a killed Leishmania vaccine with saponin adjuvant in dogs. Vaccine 2007; 25 (44): 7674-7686. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.08.009]
26. Uzonna JE, Wei G, Yurkowski D, Bretscher P. Immune elimination of Leishmania major in mice: implications for immune memory, vaccination, and reactivation disease. Journal of immunology 2001; 167: 6967-74. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.167.12.6967]
27. Zaph C, Uzonna J, Beverley SM, Scott P. Central memory T cells mediate long-term immunity to Leishmania major in the absence of persistent parasites. Nature medicine 2004; 10(10): 1104-1110. [DOI:10.1038/nm1108]
28. Das A, Ali N. Correction: combining cationic liposomal delivery with MPL-TDM for cysteine protease cocktail vaccination against Leishmania donovani: evidence for antigen synergy and protection. PloS neglected tropical diseases 2015; 9(10): e0004185. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004185]
29. Badiee A, Heravi Shargh V, Khamesipour A, Jaafari MR. Micro/nanoparticle adjuvants for antileishmanial vaccines: present and future trends. Vaccine 2013; 31(5): 735-749. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.068]
30. McMahon-Pratt D, Alexander J. Does the Leishmania majorparadigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for new world cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease? Immunological reviews 2004; 201: 206-224. [DOI:10.1111/j.0105-2896.2004.00190.x]
31. Spath GF, Epstein L, Leader B, Singer SM, Avila HA, Turco SJ, Beverley SM. Lipophosphoglycan is a virulence factor distinct from related glycoconjugates in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000; 97(16): 9258-9263. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.160257897]
32. Ilg T, Stierhof YD, Craik D, Simpson R, Handman E, Bacic A. Purification and structural characterization of a filamentous, mucin-like proteophosphoglycan secreted by Leishmania parasites. The journal of biological chemistry 1996; 271(35): 21583-21596. [DOI:10.1074/jbc.271.35.21583]
33. Soong L, Chang CH, Sun J, Longley BJ, Jr, Ruddle NH, Flavell RA, McMahon-Pratt D. Role of CD4+ T cells in pathogenesis associated with Leishmania amazonensis infection. Journal of immunology 1997; 158(11): 5374-5383.
34. Adler S, Theodor O. The distribution of sandflies and leishmaniasis in Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia. Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology 1929; 23(2): 269-306. [DOI:10.1080/00034983.1929.11684602]
35. Dunning N. Leishmania vaccines: From leishmanization to the era of DNA technology. Bioscience horizons 2009; 2(1): 73-82. [DOI:10.1093/biohorizons/hzp004]
36. Noazin S, Modabber F, Khamesipour A, Smith PG, Moulton LH, Nasseri K, Sharifi I, Khalil EAG, Bernal IDV, Antunes CMF, Kieny MP, Tanner M. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: A review of field efficacy trials. Vaccine 2008; 26(52): 6759-6767. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.085]
37. Sundar S, Singh B. Identifying vaccine targets for anti-leishmanial vaccine development. Expert review of vaccines 2014; 13(4): 489-505. [DOI:10.1586/14760584.2014.894467]
38. Tabbara KS, Peters NC, Afrin F, Mendez S, Bertholet S, Belkaid Y, Sacks DL. Conditions influencing the efficacy of vaccination with live organisms against Leishmania major infection. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(8): 4714-4722. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.8.4714-4722.2005]
39. Khamesipour A, Rafati S, Davoudi N, Mahboudi F, Modabber F. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidate for development: a global overview. The Indian journal of medical research 2006; 123(3): 423-438.
40. Modabber F. Vaccines against leishmaniasis. Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology 1995; 89(Suppl1): 83-88. [DOI:10.1080/00034983.1995.11813017]
41. Mayrink W, Da Costa CA, Magalhães PA, Melo MN, Dias M, Lima AO, Michalick MS, Williams P. A field trial of a vaccine against American dermal Leishmaniasis. Transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene 1979; 73(4): 385-387. [DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(79)90159-7]
42. Mayrink W, Williams P, Da Costa CA, Magalhaes PA, Melo MN, Dias M, Lima AO, Michalick MS, Carvalho EF, Barros GC, Sessa PA. An experimental vaccine against American dermal Leishmaniasis: experience in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology 1985; 79(3): 259-269. [DOI:10.1080/00034983.1985.11811917]
43. Sharples CE, Shaw MA, Castes M, Convit J, Blackwell JM. Immune response in healthy volunteers vaccinated with BCG plus killed leishmanial promastigotes: antibody responses to mycobacterial and Leishmanial antigens. Vaccine 1994; 12(15): 1402-1412. [DOI:10.1016/0264-410X(94)90149-X]
44. Convit J, Rondon A, Ulrich M, Bloom B, Castellanos P, Pinardi M, Castes M, Garcia L. Immunotherapy versus chemotherapy in localised cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Lancet 1987; 329(8530): 401-405. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(87)90116-4]
45. Convit J, Ulrich M, Zerpa O, Borges R, Aranzazu N, Valera M, Villarroel H, Zapata Z, Tomedes I. Immunotherapy of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela during the period 1990-1999. Transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene 2003; 97(4): 469-472. [DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(03)90093-9]
46. Machado‐Pinto J, Pinto J, Da Costa CA, Genaro O, Marques MJ, Modabber F, Mayrink W. Immuno-chemotherapy for cutaneous Leishmaniasis: a controlled trial using killed Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis vaccine plus antimonial. International journal of dermatology 2002; 41(2): 73-78. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01336.x]
47. Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Aviles H, Maldonado R, Racines J. Field trial of a vaccine against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis in an at-risk child population: safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy during the first 12 months of follow-up.The journal of infection diseases 1998; 177(5): 1352-1357. [DOI:10.1086/515265]
48. Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Romero L, Garcia V, Salazar J. Field trial of a vaccine against new world cutaneous leishmaniasis in an at-risk child population: how long does protection last? The journal of infection diseases 2003; 187(12): 1959-1961. [DOI:10.1086/375399]
49. Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Calvopina M, Hidalgo A, Cevallos W, Correa J. Safety, immunogenecity, and efficacy of an autoclaved Leishmania amazonensis vaccine plus BCG adjuvant against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2004; 22(9-10): 1320-1326. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.06.002]
50. Momeni AZ, Jalayer T, Emamjomeh M, Khamesipour A, Zicker F, Ghassemi RL, Dowlati Y, Sharifi I, Aminjavaheri M, Shafiei A, Alimohammadian M H, Hashemi-Fesharki R, Nasseri K, Godal T, Smith P G, Modabber F. A randomised, double blind, controlled trial of a killed L. major vaccine plus BCG against zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Vaccine 1998; 17(5): 466-472. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00220-5]
51. Sharifi I, Fe Kri AR, Aflatonian MR, Khamesipour A, Nadim A, Mousavi MRA, Momeni A Z, Dowlati Y, Godal T, Zicker F, Smith P G, Modabber F. Randomized vaccine trial of single dose of killed Leishmania major plus BCG against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam, Iran. Lancet 1998; 351: 1540-1544. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)09552-X]
52. Mahmoodi M, Khamesipour A, Dowlati Y, Rafati S, Momeni AZ, Emamjomeh M, Hejazi H, Modabber F. Immune response measured in human volunteers vaccinated with autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine mixed with low dose of BCG. Clinical and experimental immunology 2003; 134(2): 303-308. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02299.x]
53. Kedzierski L, Zhu Y, Handman E. Leishmania vaccines: progress and problems. Parasitology 2006; 133(S2): S87. [DOI:10.1017/S0031182006001831]
54. Selvapandiyan A, Duncan R, Debrabant A, Lee N, Sreenivas G, Salotra P, et al. Genetically modified live attenuated parasites as vaccines for leishmaniasis. Indian journal of medical research 2006;123:455-66.
55. Mitchell G.F, Handman E, Spithill T.W. Vaccination against cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mice using nonpathogenic cloned promastigotes of Leishmania major and importance of route of injection. Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science 1994; 62(2): 145-153 [DOI:10.1038/icb.1984.14]
56. Gorczynski RM. Immunization of susceptible BALB/c mice against Leishmania braziliensis: II. Use of temperature-sensitive avirulent clones of parasite for vaccination purposes. Cellular immunology 1985; 94(1): 11-20. [DOI:10.1016/0008-8749(85)90081-4]
57. Rivier D, Shah R, Bovay P, Mauel J. Vaccine development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Subcutaneous administration of radioattenuated parasites protects CBA mice against virulent Leishmania major challenge. Parasite immunology 1993; 15(2): 35-46. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3024.1993.tb00587.x]
58. Kimsey PB, Theodos CM, Mitchen TK, Turco SJ, Titus RG. An avirulent lipophosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major clone induces CD4+ T cells which protect susceptible BALB/c mice against infection with virulent L. major Infection and immunity 1993; 61(12): 5205-2513. [DOI:10.1128/iai.61.12.5205-5213.1993]
59. Daneshvar H, Coombs GH, Hagan P, Phillips RS. Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major: attenuation of wild-type parasites and vaccination with the attenuated lines. The journal of infectious diseases 2003; 187(10): 1662-1668. [DOI:10.1086/374783]
60. Titus RG, Gueiros-Filho FJ, De Freitas LA, Beverley SM. Development of a safe live Leishmania vaccine line by gene replacement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1995; 92(22): 10267-10271. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.92.22.10267]
61. Uzonna JE, Wei G, Yurkowski D, Bretscher P. Immune elimination of Leishmania major in mice: implications for immune memory, vaccination, and reactivation disease. Journal of immunology 2001; 167: 6967-6974. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.167.12.6967]
62. Uzonna JE, Späth GF, Beverley SM, Scott P. Vaccination with phosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major protects highly susceptible mice from virulent challenge without inducing a strong Th1 response. The journal of immunology 2004; 172(6): 3793-3797. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.172.6.3793]
63. Späth GF, Lye LF, Segawa H, Sacks DL, Turco SJ, Beverley SM. Persistence without pathology in phosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major. Science 2003; 301(5637): 1241-1243. [DOI:10.1126/science.1087499]
64. Ilg T, Demar M, Harbecke D. Phosphoglycan repeat-deficient Leishmania mexicanaparasites remain infectious to macrophages and mice. Journal of biological chemistry 2001; 276(7): 4988-4997. [DOI:10.1074/jbc.M008030200]
65. Alexander J, Coombs GH, Mottram JC. Leishmania mexicana cysteine proteinase-deficient mutants have attenuated virulence for mice and potentiate a Th1 response. The journal of immunology 1998; 161(12): 6794-6801.
66. Saravia NG, Escorcia B, Osorio Y, Valderrama L, Brooks D, Arteaga L, Coombs G, Mottram J, Travi BL. Pathogenicity and protective immunogenicity of cysteine proteinase-deficient mutants of Leishmania mexicana in non-murine models. Vaccine 2006; 24(19): 4247-4259. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.05.045]
67. Silvestre R, Cordeiro-Da-Silva A, Santarém N, Vergnes B, Sereno D, Ouaissi A. SIR2-deficient Leishmania infantum induces a defined IFN-γ/IL-10 pattern that correlates with protection. The journal of immunology 2007; 179(5): 3161-3170. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.179.5.3161]
68. Papadopoulou B, Roy G, Breton M, Kündig C, Dumas C, Fillion I, Singh AK, Olivier M, Ouellette M. Reduced infectivity of a Leishmania donovani biopterin transporter genetic mutant and its use as an attenuated strain for vaccination. Infection and immunity 2002; 70(1): 62-68. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.70.1.62-68.2002]
69. Muyombwe A, Olivier M, Harvie P, Bergeron MG, Ouellette M, Papadopoulou B. Protection against Leishmania major challenge infection in mice vaccinated with live recombinant parasites expressing a cytotoxic gene. Journal of infectious diseases 1998; 177(1): 188-195. [DOI:10.1086/513821]
70. Davoudi N, Mahboudi F, Azizi M, Adeli A, McMaster RW. Introduction of three independent selection markers in Leishmania. Iranian biomedical journal 2003; 1: 13- 18.
71. Davoudi N, Tate CA, Warburton C, Murray A, Mahboudi F, McMaster WR. Development of a recombinant Leishmania major strain sensitive to ganciclovir and 5-fluorocytosine for use as a live vaccine challenge in clinical trials. Vaccine 2005; 23(9): 1170-1177. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.08.032]
72. Joshi S, Rawat K, Yadav NK, Kumar V, Siddiqi MI, Dube A. Visceral leishmaniasis: advancements in vaccine development via classical and molecular approaches. Frontiers in immunology 2014; 5: 380. [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00380]
73. Palatnik de Sousa CB, Borojevic R, Previato JO, Mendonca-Previato L. Inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigote internalization into murine macrophages by chemically defined parasite glycoconjugate. Infection and immunity 1989; 57(3): 754-763. [DOI:10.1128/iai.57.3.754-763.1989]
74. Jardim A, Tolson DL, Turco SJ, Pearson TW, Olafson RW. The Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan T lymphocyte reactive component is a tightly associated protein complex. Journal of immunology 1991; 147(10): 3538-3544.
75. Rachamim N, Jaffe CL. Pure protein fromLeishmania donovani protects mice against both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of immunology 1993; 150(6): 2322-2331.
76. Katebi A, Gholami E, Taheri T, Zahedifard F, Habibzadeh S, Taslimi Y, Shokri F, Papadopoulou B, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, Rafati S. Leishmania tarentolae secreting the sand fly salivary antigen PpSP15 confers protection against Leishmania major infection in a susceptible BALB/c mice model. Molecular immunology 2015; 67(2): 501-511. [DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.08.001]
77. Zahedifard F, Gholami E, Taheri T, Taslimi Y, Doustdari F, Seyed N, Torkashvand F, Meneses C, Papadopoulou B, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG. Enhanced protective efficacy of nonpathogenic recombinant Leishmania tarentolae expressing cysteine proteinases combined with a sand fly salivary antigen. Plos neglected tropical diseases 2014; 8(3): e2751. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002751]
78. Shahbazi M, Zahedifard F, Taheri T, Taslimi Y, Jamshidi S, Shirian S, Mahdavi N, Hassankhani M, Daneshbod Y, Zarkesh-Esfahani SH, Papadopoulou B. Evaluation of live recombinant nonpathogenic Leishmania tarentolae expressing cysteine proteinase and A2 genes as a candidate vaccine against experimental canine visceral leishmaniasis. Plos one 2015; 10(7): e0132794. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132794]
79. Saljoughian N, Taheri T, Zahedifard F, Taslimi Y, Doustdari F, Bolhassani A, Doroud D, Azizi H, Heidari K, Vasei M, Namvar Asl N. Development of novel prime-boost strategies based on a tri-gene fusion recombinant L. tarentolae vaccine against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis. PloS neglected tropical diseases 2013; 7(4): e2174. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002174]
80. Stiles ME, Holzapfel WH. Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy. International journal of food microbiology 1997; 36(1): 1-29. [DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(96)01233-0]
81. Hugentobler F, Di Roberto RB, Gillard J, Cousineau B. Oral immunization using live Lactococcus lactis co-expressing LACK and IL-12 protects BALB/c mice against Leishmania major infection. Vaccine 2012; 30(39): 5726-5732. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.004]
82. Torkashvand A, Bahrami F, Adib M, Ajdary S. Subcutaneous immunization with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing F1S1 fusion protein induces systemic and mucosal immune responses in BALB/C mice. Reports of biochemistry and molecular biology 2019; 7(2): 196.
83. Davarpanah E, Seyed N, Bahrami F, Rafati S, Safaralizadeh R, Taheri T. Lactococcus lactis expressing sand fly PpSP15 salivary protein confers long-term protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2020; 14(1): e0007939. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007939]
84. Liu MA, Wahren B, Hedestam GB. DNA vaccines: recent developments and future possibilities. Human gene therapy 2006; 17(11): 1051-61. [DOI:10.1089/hum.2006.17.1051]
85. Alarcon JB, Waine GW, McManus DP. DNA vaccines: technology and application as anti-parasite and anti-microbial agents. Advances in parasitology 1999; 42: 343-410. [DOI:10.1016/S0065-308X(08)60152-9]
86. Restifo NP, Ying H, Hwang L, Leitner WW. The promise of nucleic acid vaccines. Gene therapy 2000; 7(2): 89-92. [DOI:10.1038/sj.gt.3301117]
87. Gurunathan S, Prussin C, Sacks DL, Seder RA. Vaccine requirements for sustained cellular immunity to an intracellular parasitic infection. Nature medicine 1998; 4(12): 1409-15. [DOI:10.1038/4000]
88. Ghosh A, Zhang WW, Matlashewski G. Immunization with A2 protein results in a mixed Th1/Th2 and a humoral response which protects mice against Leishmania donovani infections. Vaccine 2001; 20(1-2): 59-66. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00322-X]
89. Solioz N, Blum-Tirouvanziam U, Jacquet R, Rafati S, Corradin G, Mauël J, Fasel N. The protective capacities of histone H1 against experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine 1999; 18(9-10): 850-85. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00340-0]
90. Xu DU, Liew FY. Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of L. major. Immunology 1995; 84(2): 173.
91. Fragaki K, Suffia I, Ferrua B, Rousseau D, Le Fichoux Y, Kubar J. Immunisation with DNA encoding Leishmania infantum protein papLe22 decreases the frequency of parasitemic episodes in infected hamsters. Vaccine 2001; 19(13-14): 1701-1709. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00398-4]
92. Rafati S, Salmanian AH, Taheri T, Vafa M, Fasel N. A protective cocktail vaccine against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis with DNA encoding cysteine proteinases of Leishmania major. Vaccine 2001; 19(25-26): 3369-3375. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00081-0]
93. Campos-Neto A, Webb JR, Greeson K, Coler RN, Skeiky YA, Reed SG. Vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding TSA/LmSTI1 leishmanial fusion proteins confers protection against Leishmania major infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. Infection and immunity 2002; 70(6): 2828-2836. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.70.6.2828-2836.2002]
94. Ahmed SB, Bahloul C, Robbana C, Askri S, Dellagi K. A comparative evaluation of different DNA vaccine candidates against experimental murine leishmaniasis due to L. major. Vaccine 2004; 22(13-14): 1631-1639. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.10.046]
95. Iborra S, Soto M, Carrión J, Alonso C, Requena JM. Vaccination with a plasmid DNA cocktail encoding the nucleosomal histones of Leishmania confers protection against murine cutaneous leishmaniosis. Vaccine 2004; 22(29-30): 3865-3876. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.04.015]
96. Aguilar-Be I, da Silva Zardo R, de Souza EP, Borja-Cabrera GP, Rosado-Vallado M, Mut-Martin M, del Rosario García-Miss M, de Sousa CB, Dumonteil E. Cross-protective efficacy of a prophylactic Leishmania donovani DNA vaccine against visceral and cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(2): 812-819. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.2.812-819.2005]
97. Rodríguez-Cortés A, Ojeda A, López-Fuertes L, Timón M, Altet L, Solano-Gallego L, Sánchez-Robert E, Francino O, Alberola J. Vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding KMPII, TRYP, LACK and GP63 does not protect dogs against Leishmania infantum experimental challenge. Vaccine 2007; 25(46): 7962-7971. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.08.023]
98. Gurunathan S, Sacks DL, Brown DR, Reiner SL, Charest H, Glaichenhaus N, Seder RA. Vaccination with DNA encoding the immunodominant LACK parasite antigen confers protective immunity to mice infected with Leishmania major. The journal of experimental medicine 1997; 186(7): 1137-1147. [DOI:10.1084/jem.186.7.1137]
99. Sukumaran B, Tewary P, Saxena S, Madhubala R. Vaccination with DNA encoding ORFF antigen confers protective immunity in mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Vaccine 2003; 21(11-12): 1292-1299. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00352-3]
100. Borja-Cabrera GP, Santos FN, Miyashiro LM, Santos FB, Palatnik de Sousa CB. Nucleoside hydrolase DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis. Procedia in vaccinology 2009; 1(1): 104-109. [DOI:10.1016/j.provac.2009.07.019]
101. Campbell K, Diao H, Ji J, Soong L. DNA immunization with the gene encoding P4 nuclease of Leishmania amazonensis protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2003; 71(11): 6270-6278. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.71.11.6270-6278.2003]
102. Kumari S, Samant M, Misra P, Khare P, Sisodia B, Shasany AK, Dube A. Th1-stimulatory polyproteins of soluble Leishmania donovani promastigotes ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa offers long-lasting protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2008; 26(45): 5700-5711. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.021]
103. Gradoni L, Manzillo VF, Pagano A, Piantedosi D, De Luna R, Gramiccia M, Scalone A, Di Muccio T, Oliva G. Failure of a multi-subunit recombinant leishmanial vaccine (MML) to protect dogs from Leishmania infantum infection and to prevent disease progression in infected animals. Vaccine 2005; 23(45): 5245-5251. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.07.001]
104. Perrin P, Jacob Y, Aguilar-Setien A, Loza-Rubio E, Jallet C, Desmezieres E, Aubert M, Cliquet F, Tordo N. Immunization of dogs with a DNA vaccine induces protection against rabies virus. Vaccine 1999; 18(5-6): 479-486. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00247-9]
105. Saldarriaga OA, Travi BL, Park W, Perez LE, Melby PC. Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. Vaccine 2006; 24(11): 1928-1940. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.052]
106. Ramiro MJ, Zárate JJ, Hanke T, Rodriguez D, Rodriguez JR, Esteban M, Lucientes J, Castillo JA, Larraga V. Protection in dogs against visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is achieved by immunization with a heterologous prime-boost regime using DNA and vaccinia recombinant vectors expressing LACK. Vaccine 2003; 21(19-20): 2474-2484. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00032-X]
107. Rafati S, Nakhaee A, Taheri T, Taslimi Y, Darabi H, Eravani D, Sanos S, Kaye P, Taghikhani M, Jamshidi S, Rad MA. Protective vaccination against experimental canine visceral leishmaniasis using a combination of DNA and protein immunization with cysteine proteinases type I and II of L. infantum. Vaccine 2005; 23(28): 3716-3725. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.02.009]
108. Gillespie PM, Beaumier CM, Strych U, Hayward T, Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2016; 34(26): 2992-2995. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12.071]
109. Skeiky YA, Coler RN, Brannon M, Stromberg E, Greeson K, Crane RT, Campos-Neto A, Reed SG. Protective efficacy of a tandemly linked, multi-subunit recombinant leishmanial vaccine (Leish-111f) formulated in MPL adjuvant. Vaccine 2002; 20(27-28): 3292-3303. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00302-X]
110. Okwor I, Uzonna J. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human vaccines 2009; 5(5): 291-301 [DOI:10.4161/hv.5.5.7607]
111. Ansari N. Culture Et Isolement De Leishmania Tropica. Leishmanisation Prophyactique. Archive de institut hesarak 1964; 11(2): 31-35.
112. Nadim A, Javadian E, Mohebali M. The experience of leishmanization in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern mediterranean health journal 1997; 3(2): 284-289. [DOI:10.26719/1997.3.2.284]
113. Nadim A, Javadian E, Tahvildar-Bidruni G, Ghorbani M.. Effectiveness of leishmanization in the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Bulletin de la société de pathologie exotique et de ses filiales 1983; 76(4) : 377-383.
114. Mohebali M, Mehrabi Tavana A, Javadian E, Esfahani A, Hajjaran H, Akhoundi B. Preparation and standardization of Leishmania suspension and its evaluation for leishmaniazation. Experimental parasitology 1987; 64: 147-156.
115. Khamesipour A, Dowlati Y, Asilian A, Hashemi-Fesharki R, Javadi A, Noazin S, Modabber F. Leishmanization: use of an old method for evaluation of candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2005; 23(28): 3642-3648 [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.02.015]
116. Mohebali M, Javadian EH, Fesharakl R, Mohammadzadeh M, Nadlm A, Mesdaghinia A. Trial of a non-living crude vaccine against zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Orginal articles 1995; 8(4): 211-215.
117. Mohebali M, Nadim A, Khamesipour A. An overview of leishmanization experience: A successful control measure and a tool to evaluate candidate vaccines. Acta tropica 2019; 200: 105173. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105173]
118. Sergiev VP. Control and prophylaxis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the middle Asia republics of the former USSR. Bulletin de la société française de parasitologie 1992; 10(2): 183-187.
119. Dubrovsky YA. Some Data on the Spatial Structure of Area of Natural Nidality of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Russia: Research on Medical Geography, Moscow Branch of the USSR Geography Society; 1973.
120. Dubrovsky YA. Materials on natural focality of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the USSR subzone of northern deserts. Meditsinskaia parazitologiia parazitarnye bolezni 1973; 42 (6): 646-655.
121. Lysenko AJ, Lubova VV. Epidemiology and Geography of the Visceral Leishmaniasis in USSR. International Symposium on Leishmaniasis Ecology. Montpellier, France, 1974.
122. Streit JA, Recker TJ, Gueiros Filho F, Beverley SM, Wilson ME. Protective immunity against the protozoan Leishmania chagasi is induced by subclinical cutaneous infection with virulent but not avirulent organisms. The journal of immunology 2001; 166(3): 1921-1929. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.166.3.1921]
123. Veras PS, Brodskyn CI, Balestieri FM, De Freitas LA, Ramos AP, Queiroz AR, Barral A, Beverley SM, Barral-Netto M. A dhfr-ts-Leishmania major knockout mutant cross-protects against Leishmania amazonensis. Memorias do instituto oswaldo cruz 1999; 94(4): 491-496. [DOI:10.1590/S0074-02761999000400011]
124. Amaral VF, Teva A, Oliveira-Neto MP, Silva AJ, Pereira MS, Cupolillo E, Porrozzi R, Coutinho SG, Pirmez C, Beverley SM, Grimaldi Jr G. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania) major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) model of the human disease. Memorias do instituto oswaldo cruz 2002; 97(7): 1041-1048. [DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762002000700019]
125. Kébaïer C, Uzonna JE, Beverley SM, Scott P. Immunization with persistent attenuated Δlpg2 Leishmania major parasites requires adjuvant to provide protective immunity in C57BL/6 mice. Infection and immunity 2006; 74(1): 777-7780. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.74.1.777-780.2006]
126. Breton M, Tremblay MJ, Ouellette M, Papadopoulou B. Live nonpathogenic parasitic vector as a candidate vaccine against visceral Leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(10): 6372-6382. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.10.6372-6382.2005]
127. Kumari S, Samant M, Khare P, Misra P, Dutta S, Kolli B.K, Sharma S, Chang K.P, Dube A. Photodynamic vaccination of hamsters with inducible suicidal mutants of Leishmania amazonensis elicits immunity against visceral leishmaniasis. European journal of immunology 2009; 39(1): 178-191. [DOI:10.1002/eji.200838389]
128. Button LL, McMaster WR. Molecular cloning of the major surface antigen of leishmania. Journal of experimental medicine 1988; 167(2): 724-729. [DOI:10.1084/jem.167.2.724]
129. Yang DM, Fairweather N, Button LL, McMaster WR, Kahl LP, Liew FY. Oral Salmonella typhimurium (AroA-) vaccine expressing a major Leishmanial surface protein (gp63) preferentially induces T helper 1 cells and protective immunity against Leishmaniasis. The journal of immunology 1990; 145(7): 2281-2285.
130. Rivier D, Bovay P, Shah R, Didisheim S, Mauel J. Vaccination against Leishmania major in a CBA mouse model of infection: role of adjuvants and mechanism of protection. Parasite immunology 1999; 21(9): 461. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3024.1999.00244.x]
131. Handman E, Button LL, McMaster WR. Leishmania major: production of recombinant gp63 its antigenicity and immunogenicity in mice. Experimental parasitology 1990; 70(4): 427-435. [DOI:10.1016/0014-4894(90)90127-X]
132. Olobo JO, Anjili CO, Gicheru MM, Mbati PA, Kariuki TM, Githure JI, Koech DK, McMaster WR. Vaccination of vervet monkeys against cutaneous leishmaniosis using recombinant Leishmania 'major surface glycoprotein'(gp63). Veterinary parasitology 1995; 60(3-4): 199-212. [DOI:10.1016/0304-4017(95)00788-6]
133. Russell DG, Alexander J. Effective immunization against cutaneous Leishmaniasis with defined membrane antigens reconstituted into Liposomes. The journal of immunology 1988; 140(4): 1274-1279.
134. Mcsorley SJ, Xu D, Liew F. Vaccine efficacy of Salmonella strains expressing glycoprotein 63 with different promoters. Infection and immunity 1997; 65(1): 171-178. [DOI:10.1128/iai.65.1.171-178.1997]
135. González CR, Noriega FR, Huerta S, Santiago A, Vega M, Paniagua J, Ortiz-Navarrete V, Isibasi A, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of a Salmonella typhi CVD 908 candidate vaccine strain expressing the major surface protein gp63 of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Vaccine 1998; 16(9-10): 1043-1052. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00267-3]
136. Connell ND, Medina-Acosta E, McMaster WR, Bloom BR, Russell DG. Effective immunization against cutaneous Leishmaniasis with recombinant bacille Calmette-Guerin expressing the Leishmania surface proteinase gp63. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1993; 90(24): 11473-11477. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.90.24.11473]
137. Abdelhak S, Louzir H, Timm J, Blel L, Benlasfar Z, Lagranderie M, Gheorghiu M, Dellagi K, Gicquel B. Recombinant BCG expressing the Leishmania surface antigen Gp63 induces protective immunity against Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Microbiology 1995; 141(7): 1585-1592. [DOI:10.1099/13500872-141-7-1585]
138. Jaafari MR, Ghafarian A, Farrokh-Gisour A, Samiei A, Kheiri MT, Mahboudi F, Barkhordari F, Khamesipour A, McMaster WR. Immune response and protection assay of recombinant major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania (rgp63) reconstituted with liposomes in BALB/c mice. Vaccine 2006; 24(29-30): 5708-5717. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.04.062]
139. Bhowmick S, Ravindran R, Ali N. gp63 in stable cationic liposomes confers sustained vaccine immunity to susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Infection and immunity 2008; 76(3): 1003-1015. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.00611-07]
140. Russo DM, Burns JM, Carvalho EM, Armitage RJ, Grabstein KH, Button LL, McMaster WR, Reed SG. Human T cell responses to gp63, a surface antigen of Leishmania. The journal of immunology 1991; 147(10): 3575-3580.
141. Jardim A, Alexander J, Teh HS, Ou D, Olafson RW. Immunoprotective Leishmania major synthetic T cell epitopes. The journal of experimental medicine 1990 ; 172(2): 645-648. [DOI:10.1084/jem.172.2.645]
142. Soares LR, Sercarz EE, Miller A. Vaccination of the Leishmania major susceptible BALB/c mouse. I.
143. The precise selection of peptide determinant influences CD4+ T cell subset expression. International immunology 1994; 6(5): 785-794. [DOI:10.1093/intimm/6.5.785]
144. Spitzer N, Jardim A, Lippert D, Olafson RW. Long-term protection of mice against Leishmania major with a synthetic peptide vaccine. Vaccine 1999; 17(11-12): 1298-1230. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00363-6]
145. Tsagozis P, Karagouni E, Dotsika E. Dendritic cells pulsed with peptides of gp63 induce differential protection against experimental cutaneous Leishmaniasis. International journal of immuno-pathology and pharmacology 2004; 17(3): 343-352. [DOI:10.1177/039463200401700314]
146. Chen G, Darrah PA, Mosser DM. Vaccination against the intracellular pathogens Leishmania major and L. amazonensis by directing CD40 ligand to macrophages. Infection and immunity 2001; 69(5): 3255-3263. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.69.5.3255-3263.2001]
147. Champsi J, McMahon-Pratt D. Membrane glycoprotein M-2 protects against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Infection and immunity 1988; 56(12): 3272-3279. [DOI:10.1128/iai.56.12.3272-3279.1988]
148. McMahon-Pratt D, Rodriguez D, Rodriguez JR, Zhang Y, Manson K, Bergman C, Rivas L, Rodriguez JF, Lohman KL, Ruddle NH. Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing GP46/M-2 protect against Leishmania infection. Infection and immunity 1993; 61(8): 3351-3359. [DOI:10.1128/iai.61.8.3351-3359.1993]
149. Handman E, Symons FM, Baldwin TM, Curtis JM, Scheerlinck JPY. Protective vaccination with promastigote surface antigen 2 from Leishmania major is mediated by a TH1 type of immune response. Infection and immunity 1995; 63(11): 4261-4267. [DOI:10.1128/iai.63.11.4261-4267.1995]
150. Sjölander A, Baldwin TM, Curtis JM, Bengtsson KL, Handman E. Vaccination with recombinant parasite surface antigen 2 from Leishmania major induces a Th1 type of immune response but does not protect against infection. Vaccine 1998; 16(20): 2077-2084. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00075-9]
151. Mougneau E, Altare F, Wakil AE, Zheng S, Coppola T, Wang ZE, Waldmann R, Locksley RM, Glaichenhaus N. Expression cloning of a protective Leishmania antigen. Science 1995; 268(5210): 563-566. [DOI:10.1126/science.7725103]
152. Ferraz colho EA, Pereira Tavares CA, Amorim Carvalho FA, Chaves KF, Teixeira KN, Rodriguez RC, Charest H, Matlashewski G, Tostes Gazzinelli R, Fernandes P. Immune responses induced by the Leishmania ( Leishmania) donovani A2 antigen but not by the LACK antigen are protective against experimental Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazoensis infection. Infection immunity 2003; 71(7): 3988-3994. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.71.7.3988-3994.2003]
153. Pinto EF, Pinheiro RO, Rayol A, Larraga V, Rossi-Bergmann B. Intranasal vaccination against cutaneous Leishmaniasis with a particulated Leishmanial antigen or DNA encoding LACK. Infection and immunity 2004; 72(8): 4521-4527. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.72.8.4521-4527.2004]
154. Palatnik-de-Sousa CB, Paraguai-de-Souza E, Gomes EM, Borojevic R. Experimental murine Leishmania donovani infection: immunoprotection by the fucose-mannose ligand (FML). Brazilian journal of medical and biological research 1994; 27(2): 547.
155. Santos WR, Aguiar IA, de Souza EP, de Lima VM, Palatnik M, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB. Immunotherapy against murine experimental visceral Leishmaniasis with the FML-vaccine. Vaccine 2003; 21(32): 4668-4676. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00527-9]
156. Palatnik-de-Sousa CB, Gomes EM, Paraguai-de-Souza E, Doa Sontis WR, De Macedo SR, De Medeiros LV, Luz K. the FML (fucose-mannose ligand) of leishmanial donovani. A new tool diagnosis prognosis trans fusional control and vaccination against human kala azar. Revista de sociedade brasileira medicina tropical 1996; 29(2): 153-163. [DOI:10.1590/S0037-86821996000200008]
157. Santos WR, de Souza EP, Palatnik M, de Sousa CB. Vaccination of Swiss Albino mice against experimental visceral Leishmaniasis with the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani. Vaccine 1999; 17(20-21): 2554-2561. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00058-4]
158. Palatnik-de-Sousa CB, Moreno M, Paraguai-de-Souza E, Borojevic R. The FML vaccine (fucose-mannose ligand) protects hamsters from experimental kala-azar. Ciênc. cult.(säo paulo) 1994; 64(4): 290-296.
159. Santos WR, De Lima VMF, De Sousa EP, Bernardo RR, Palatnik M, de Sousa CBP. Saponins, IL12 and BCG adjuvant in the FML-vaccine formulation against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2002; 21(1-2): 30-43. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00444-9]
160. Oliveira-Freitas E, Casas CP, Borja-Cabrera GP, Santos FN, Nico D, Souza LO, Tinoco LW, Da Silva BP, Palatnik M, Parente JP, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB. Acylated and deacylated saponins of Quillaja saponaria mixture as adjuvants for the FML-vaccine against visceral Leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2006; 24(18): 3909-3920. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.02.034]
161. Paraguai de Souza E, Bernardo RR, palatnik M, palatnik de Souza CB. Vaccination of Bal/C mice against experimental visceral Leishmaniasis with the GP36 glycoprotein antigen of Leishmanial donovani. Vaccine 2001; 19(23-24): 3104-3115. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00031-7]
162. da Silva VO, Borja-Cabrera GP, Pontes NN, de Souza EP, Luz KG, Palatnik M, de Sousa CB. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (Sao Goncalo do Amaranto, RN). Vaccine 2000; 19(9-10): 1082-1092. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00339-X]
163. Borja-Cabrera GP, Mendes AC, Paraguai-de-Souza E, Okada LYH, Trivellato FADA, Kawasaki JYA, Cerqueira Costa A, Barbosa Reis A, Genaro O, Maria Melo Batista L, Palatnik M, Beatriz Palatnik-de-Sousa C. Effective immunotherapy against canine visceral Leishmaniasis with the FML vaccine. Vaccine 2004; 22(17-18): 2234-2243. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.039]
164. Borja-Cabrera GP, Coreia Pontes NN, De Silva VO, Paraguay De Souza E, Santos WR, Gomes M, Luz GK, Palatnik M, Palatnik de Sousa CB. long lasting protection against caning kala azar using the FML-QuilA saponin vaccine in the endemic area of Brazil (Sao Gonsalo do Amarante RN). Vaccine 2002; 20(27-28): 3277-3284. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00294-3]
165. Borja-Cabrera GP, Santos FN, Bauer FS, Parra LE, Menz I, Morgado AA, Soares IS, Batista LM, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB. Immunogenicity assay of the Leishmune vaccine against canine visceralL in Brazil. Vaccine 2008; 26(39): 4991-4997. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.029]
166. Araújo MS, de Andrade RA, Vianna LR, Mayrink W, Reis AB, Sathler-Avelar R, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Andrade MC, Mello MN, Martins-Filho OA. Despite Leishvaccine and Leishmune trigger distinct immune profiles, their ability to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells support their high-quality immunogenic potential against canine visceral Leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2008; 26(18): 2211-2224. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.02.044]
167. Araújo MS, de Andrade RA, Sathler-Avelar R, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Andrade MC, Vianna LR, Mayrink W, Reis AB, Malaquias LC, Mello MN, Martins-Filho OA.
168. T-cell-derived cytokines, nitric oxide production by peripheral blood monocytes and seric anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi IgG subclass patterns following immunization against canine visceral Leishmaniasis using leishvaccine and leishmune. Vaccine 2009; 27(7): 1008-1017. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.104]
169. Nogueira FS, Moreira MA, Borja-Cabrera GP, Santos FN, Menz I, Parra LE, Xu Z, Chu HJ, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB, Luvizotto MC. Leishmune vaccine blocks the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis: absence of Leishmania parasites in blood, skin and lymph nodes of vaccinated exposed dogs. Vaccine 2005; 23(40): 4805-4810. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.05.011]
170. Saraiva EM, de Figueiredo Barbosa A, Santos FN, Borja-Cabrera GP, Nico D, Souza LO, de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar C, De Souza EP, Fampa P, Parra LE, Menz I. The FML-vaccine (Leishmune) against canine visceral leishmaniasis: a transmission blocking vaccine. Vaccine 2006; 24(13): 2423-2431. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.061]
171. Lemesre JL, Holzmuller P, Cavaleyra M, Goncalves RB, Hottin G, Papierok G.Protection against Lemesre JL, Holzmuller P, Cavaleyra M, Gonçalves RB, Hottin G, Papierok G. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Vaccine 2005; 23(22): 2825-2840. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.061]
172. Lemesre JL, Holzmuller P, Gonçalves RB, Bourdoiseau G, Hugnet C, Cavaleyra M, Papierok G. Long-lasting protection against canine visceral leishmaniasis using the LiESAp-MDP vaccine in endemic areas of France: double-blind randomised efficacy field trial. Vaccine 2007; 25(21): 4223-4234. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.083]
173. Bourdoiseau G, Hugnet C, Gonçalves RB, Vézilier F, Petit-Didier E, Papierok G, Lemesre JL. Effective humoral and cellular immunoprotective responses in Li ESAp-M.DP vaccinated protected dogs. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2009; 128(1-3): 71-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.309]
174. Aebischer T, Wolfram M, Patzer SI, Ilg T, Wiese M, Overath P. Subunit vaccination of mice against new world cutaneous leishmaniasis: comparison of three proteins expressed in amastigotes and six adjuvants. Infection and immunity 2000; 68(3): 1328-1336. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.68.3.1328-1336.2000]
175. Rafati S, Baba AA, Bakhshayesh M, Vafa M. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with Leishmania major amastigote‐specific cysteine proteinase. Clinical and experimental immunology 2000; 120(1): 134-138. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2000.01160.x]
176. Rafati S, Kariminia A, Seyde-Eslami S, Narimani M, Taheri T, Lebbatard M. Recombinant cysteine proteinases-based vaccines against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice: the partial protection relies on interferon gamma producing CD8+ T lymphocyte activation. Vaccine 2002; 20(19-20): 2439-2447. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00189-5]
177. Zadeh-Vakili A, Taheri T, Taslimi Y, Doustdari F, Salmanian AH, Rafati S. Immunization with the hybrid protein vaccine, consisting of Leishmania major cysteine proteinases Type I (CPB) and Type II (CPA), partially protects against leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2004; 22(15-16): 1930-1940. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.014]
178. Alves CR, Benévolo‐de‐Andrade TC, Alves JL, Pirmez C. Th1 and Th2 immunological profile induced by cysteine proteinase in murine leishmaniasis. Parasite immunology 2004; 26(3): 127-135. [DOI:10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00691.x]
179. Ferreira JH, Gentil LG, Dias SS, Fedeli CE, Katz S, Barbiéri CL. Immunization with the cysteine proteinase Ldccys1 gene from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the recombinant Ldccys1 protein elicits protective immune responses in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2008; 26(5): 677-685. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.11.044]
180. Jensen AT, Curtis J, Montgomery J, Handman E, Theander TG. Molecular and immunological characterisation of the glucose regulated protein 78 of Leishmania donovani. Biochimica et biophysica acta 2001; 1549(1): 73-87. [DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(01)00240-0]
181. Mukherjee M, Bhattacharyya A, Duttagupta S. Serodiagnostic and immunoprophylactic potential of a 78kDa protein of Leishmania donovani of Indian origin. Medical science monitor 2002; 8(4): BR117-122.
182. Nagill R, Kaur S. Enhanced efficacy and immunogenicity of 78 kDa antigen formulated in various adjuvants against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2010; 28(23): 4002-4012. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.015]
183. Soong L, Duboise SM, Kima P, McMahon-Pratt D. Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigens protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 1995; 63(9): 3559-3566. [DOI:10.1128/iai.63.9.3559-3566.1995]
184. Kar S, Metz C, McMahon-Pratt D. CD4+ T cells play a dominant role in protection against New World leishmaniasis induced by vaccination with the P-4 amastigote antigen. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(6): 3823-3827. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3823-3827.2005]
185. Carrillo E, Ahmed S, Goldsmith-Pestana K, Nieto J, Osorio Y, Travi B, Moreno J, McMahon-Pratt D. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2007; 25(8): 1534-1543. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.10.036]
186. Coutinho SG, Oliveira MP, Da-Cruz AM, De Luca PM, Mendonça SC, Bertho AL, Soong L, McMahon-Pratt D. T-cell responsiveness of American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to purified Leishmania pifanoiamastigote antigens and Leishmania braziliens is promastigote antigens: Immunologic patterns associated with cure. Experimental parasitology 1996; 84(2): 144-155. [DOI:10.1006/expr.1996.0100]
187. Haberer JE, Da-Cruz AM, Soong L, Oliveira-Neto MP, Rivas L, McMahon-Pratt D, Coutinho SG. Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigen P-4: epitopes involved in T-cell responsiveness in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 1998; 66(7): 3100-3105. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.66.7.3100-3105.1998]
188. Ghosh A, Zhang WW, Matlashewski G. Immunization with A2 protein results in a mixed Th1/Th2 and a humoral response which protects mice against Leishmania donovani infections. Vaccine 2001; 20: 59-66. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00322-X]
189. Resende DM, Caetano BC, Dutra MS, Penido ML, Abrantes CF, Verly RM, Resende JM, Piló-Veloso D, Rezende SA, Bruna-Romero O, Fernandes AP. Epitope mapping and protective immunity elicited by adenovirus expressing the Leishmania amastigote specific A2 antigen: correlation with IFN-γ and cytolytic activity by CD8+ T cells. Vaccine 2008; 26(35): 4585-4593. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.091]
190. Fernandes AP, Costa MM, Coelho EA, Michalick MS, de Freitas E, Melo MN, Tafuri WL, de Melo Resende D, Hermont V, de Freitas Abrantes C, Gazzinelli RT. Protective immunity against challenge with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in beagle dogs vaccinated with recombinant A2 protein. Vaccine 2008; 26(46): 5888-5895. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.095]
191. Stäger S, Smith DF, Kaye PM. Immunization with a recombinant stage-regulated surface protein from Leishmania donovani induces protection against visceral leishmaniasis. The journal of immunology 2000; 165(12): 7064-7071. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.165.12.7064]
192. Moreno J, Nieto J, Masina S, Cañavate C, Cruz I, Chicharro C, Carrillo E, Napp S, Reymond C, Kaye PM, Smith DF. Immunization with H1, HASPB1 and MML Leishmania proteins in a vaccine trial against experimental canine leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2007; 25(29): 5290-5300. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.010]
193. Wilson ME, Young BM, Andersen KP, Weinstock JV, Metwali A, Ali KM, Donelson JE. A recombinant Leishmania chagasi antigen that stimulates cellular immune responses in infected mice. Infection and immunity 1995; 63(5): 2062-2069. [DOI:10.1128/iai.63.5.2062-2069.1995]
194. Streit JA, Recker TJ, Donelson JE, Wilson ME. BCG expressing LCR1 of Leishmania chagasi induces protective immunity in susceptible mice. Experimental parasitology 2000; 94(1): 33-41. [DOI:10.1006/expr.1999.4459]
195. Masina S, M. Gicheru M, Demotz SO, Fasel NJ. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in outbred vervet monkeys, using a recombinant histone H1 antigen. The journal of infectious diseases 2003; 188(8): 1250-1257. [DOI:10.1086/378677]
196. Dole VS, Raj VS, Ghosh A, Madhubala R, Myler PJ, Stuart KD. Immunization with recombinant LD1 antigens protects against experimental leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2000; 19(4-5): 423-430. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00207-3]
197. Tewary P, Sukumaran B, Saxena S, Madhubala R. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of protective immunity in mice immunized with recombinant ORFF leishmanial antigen. Vaccine 2004; 22(23-24): 3053-3060. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.02.007]
198. Tewary P, Jain M, Sahani MH, Saxena S, Madhubala R. A heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen using ORFF DNA and recombinant ORFF protein confers protective immunity against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of infectious diseases 2005; 191(12): 2130-2137. [DOI:10.1086/430348]
199. Tewary P, Saxena S, Madhubala R. Co-administration of IL-12 DNA with rORFF antigen confers long-term protective immunity against experimental visceral leishmaniaisis. Vaccine 2006; 24(13): 2409-2416. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.058]
200. Iborra S, Carrión J, Anderson C, Alonso C, Sacks D, Soto M. Vaccination with the Leishmania infantum acidic ribosomal P0 protein plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in C57BL/6 mice but does not prevent progressive disease in BALB/c mice. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(9): 5842-5852. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.9.5842-5852.2005]
201. Iborra S, Parody N, Abánades DR, Bonay P, Prates D, Novais FO, Barral-Netto M, Alonso C, Soto M. Vaccination with the Leishmania major ribosomal proteins plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces protection against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Microbes and infection 2008; 10(10-11): 1133-1141. [DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2008.06.002]
202. Ramı́rez JR, Gilchrist K, Robledo S, Sepúlveda JC, Moll H, Soldati D, Berberich C. Attenuated toxoplasma gondii ts-4 mutants engineered to express the Leishmania antigen KMP-11 elicit a specific immune response in BALB/c mice. Vaccine 2001; 20(3-4): 455-461. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00341-3]
203. Basu R, Bhaumik S, Haldar AK, Naskar K, De T, Dana SK, Walden P, Roy S. Hybrid cell vaccination resolves Leishmania donovani infection by eliciting a strong CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response with concomitant suppression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) but not IL-4 or IL-13. Infection and immunity 2007; 75(12): 5956-5966. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.00944-07]
204. Saravia NG, Hazbon MH, Osorio Y, Valderrama L, Walker J, Santrich C, Cortazar T, Lebowitz JH, Travi BL. Protective immunogenicity of the paraflagellar rod protein 2 of Leishmania mexicana. Vaccine 2005; 23(8): 984-995. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.07.044]
205. Molano I, Alonso MG, Miron C, Redondo E, Requena JM, Soto M, Nieto CG, Alonso C. A Leishmania infantum multi-component antigenic protein mixed with live BCG confers protection to dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2003; 92(1-2): 1-3. [DOI:10.1016/S0165-2427(02)00315-X]
206. Parody N, Soto M, Requena JM, Alonso C. Adjuvant guided polarization of the immune humoral response against a protective multicomponent antigenic protein (Q) from Leishmania infantum. A CpG + Q mix protects BALB/c mice from infection. Parasite immunology 2004; 26(6‐7): 283-293. [DOI:10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00711.x]
207. Webb JR, Campos-Neto A, Ovendale PJ, Martin TI, Stromberg EJ, Badaro R, Reed SG. Human and murine immune responses to a novel Leishmania major recombinant protein encoded by members of a multicopy gene family. Infection and immunity 1998; 66(7): 3279-3289. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.66.7.3279-3289.1998]
208. Campos-Neto A, Porrozzi R, Greeson K, Coler RN, Webb JR, Seiky YA, Reed SG, Grimaldi G. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by recombinant antigens in murine and nonhuman primate models of the human disease. Infection and immunity 2001; 69(6): 4103-4108. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.69.6.4103-4108.2001]
209. Badiee A, Jaafari MR, Khamesipour A. Leishmania major: immune response in BALB/c mice immunized with stress-inducible protein 1 encapsulated in liposomes. Experimental parasitology 2007; 115(2): 127-134. [DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2006.07.002]
210. Badiee A, Jaafari MR, Samiei A, Soroush D, Khamesipour A. Coencapsulation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with recombinant Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1 in liposome enhances immune response and protection against leishmaniasis in immunized BALB/c mice. Clinical and vaccine immunology 2008; 15(4): 668-667. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00413-07]
211. Coler RN, Skeiky YA, Bernards K, Greeson K, Carter D, Cornellison CD, Modabber F, Campos-Neto A, Reed SG. Immunization with a polyprotein vaccine consisting of the T-Cell antigens thiol-specific antioxidant, Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1, and Leishmania elongation initiation factor protects against leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2002; 70(8): 4215-4225. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.70.8.4215-4225.2002]
212. Coler RN, Goto Y, Bogatzki L, Raman V, Reed SG. Leish-111f, a recombinant polyprotein vaccine that protects against visceral Leishmaniasis by elicitation of CD4+ T cells. Infection and immunity 2007; 75(9): 4648-54. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.00394-07]
213. Badaro R, Lobo I, Munos A, Netto EM, Modabber F, Campos-Neto A, Coler RN, Reed SG. Immunotherapy for drug-refractory mucosal leishmaniasis. The journal of infectious diseases 2006; 194(8): 1151-1159. [DOI:10.1086/507708]
214. Salay G, Dorta ML, Santos NM, Mortara RA, Brodskyn C, Oliveira CI, Barbieri CL, Rodrigues MM. Testing of four Leishmania vaccine candidates in a mouse model of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. Clinical and vaccine immunology 2007; 14(9): 1173-1181. [DOI:10.1128/CVI.00060-07]
215. Fujiwara RT, Vale AM, da Silva JC, da Costa RT, da Silva Quetz J, Martins Filho OA, Reis AB, Oliveira RC, Machado-Coelho GL, Bueno LL, Bethony JM. Immunogenicity in dogs of three recombinant antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) potential vaccine candidates for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Veterinary research 2005; 36(5-6): 827-838. [DOI:10.1051/vetres:2005033]
216. Xu DU, Liew FY. Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of L. major. Immunology 1995; 84(2): 173.
217. Walker PS, Scharton-Kersten T, Rowton ED, Hengge U, Bouloc A, Udey MC, Vogel JC. Genetic immunization with glycoprotein 63 cDNA results in a helper T cell type 1 immune response and protection in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Human gene therapy 1998; 9(13): 1899-1907. [DOI:10.1089/hum.1998.9.13-1899]
218. Dumonteil E, Andrade-Narvarez F, Escobedo-Ortegon J, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Valencia-Pacheco G, Flores-Serrano A, Canto-Lara S, Arjona-Torres A. Comparative study of DNA vaccines encoding various antigens against Leishmania mexicana. Developments in biological 2000; 104: 135-141.
219. Dumonteil E, Jesus RS, Javier EO, del Rosario GM. DNA vaccines induce partial protection against Leishmania mexicana. Vaccine 2003; 21(17-18): 2161-2168. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00769-7]
220. Handman E, Noormohammadi AH, Curtis JM, Baldwin T, Sjölander A. Therapy of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis by DNA vaccination. Vaccine 2000; 18(26): 3011-3017. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00109-2]
221. Noormohammadi AH, Hochrein H, Curtis JM, Baldwin TM, Handman E. Paradoxical effects of IL-12 in leishmaniasis in the presence and absence of vaccinating antigen. Vaccine 2001; 19: 4043-4052. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00132-3]
222. Ramos I, Alonso A, Marcen JM, Peris A, Castillo JA, Colmenares M, Larraga V. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with a non-replicative vaccinia recombinant vector expressing LACK confers protection against canine visceral leishmaniasis with a predominant Th1-specific immune response. Vaccine 2008; 26(3): 333-344. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.11.021]
223. Gomes DC, Pinto EF, De Melo LD, Lima WP, Larraga V, Lopes UG, Rossi-Bergmann B. Intranasal delivery of naked DNA encoding the LACK antigen leads to protective immunity against visceral leishmaniasis in mice. Vaccine 2007; 25(12): 2168-2172. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.11.060]
224. Marques-da-Silva EA, Coelho EA, Gomes DC, Vilela MC, Masioli CZ, Tavares CA, Fernandes AP, Afonso LC, Rezende SA. Intramuscular immunization with p36 (LACK) DNA vaccine induces IFN-γ production but does not protect BALB/c mice against Leishmania chagasi intravenous challenge. Parasitology research 2005; 98(1): 67-74. [DOI:10.1007/s00436-005-0008-8]
225. Melby PC, Yang J, Zhao W, Perez LE, Cheng J. Leishmania donovani p36 (LACK) DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic but not protective against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2001; 69(8): 4719-4125. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.69.8.4719-4725.2001]
226. Lopez-Fuertes L, Perez-Jimenez E, Vila-Coro AJ, Sack F, Moreno S, Konig SA, et al. DNA vaccination with linear minimalistic (MIDGE) vectors confers protection against Leishmania major infection in mice. Vaccine 2002; 21: 247-257. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00450-4]
227. Basu R, Bhaumik S, Basu JM, Naskar K, De T, Roy S. Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 DNA vaccination induces complete protection against both pentavalent antimonial-sensitive and-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani that correlates with inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and IL-4 generation: evidence for mixed Th1-and Th2-like responses in visceral leishmaniasis. The journal of immunology 2005; 174(11): 7160-7171. [DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.174.11.7160]
228. Bhaumik S, Basu R, Sen S, Naskar K, Roy S. KMP-11 DNA immunization significantly protects against L. donovani infection but requires exogenous IL-12 as an adjuvant for comparable protection against L. major. Vaccine 2009; 27(9): 1306-1316. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.053]
229. Gamboa-León R, de Souza EP, Borja-Cabrera GP, Santos FN, Myashiro LM, Pinheiro RO, Dumonteil E, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB. Immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis with the nucleoside hydrolase-DNA vaccine of Leishmania donovani. Vaccine 2006; 24(22): 4863-4873. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.005]
230. Zanin FHC, Coelho EAF, Tavares CAP, Marques-da-Silva EA, Silva Costa MM, Rezende SA, Gazzinelli RT, Fernandes AP. Evaluation of immune responses and protection induced by A2 and nucleoside hydrolase (NH) DNA vaccines against Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis experimental infections. Microbes and infection 2007; 9(9): 1070-1077. [DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2007.05.012]
231. Gonzalo RM, del Real G, Rodriguez JR, Rodriguez D, Heljasvaara R, Lucas P, Larraga V, Esteban M. A heterologous prime-boost regime using DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the Leishmania infantum P36/LACK antigen protects BALB/c mice from cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2002; 20(7-8): 1226-1231. [DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00427-3]
232. Tapia E, Pérez-Jiménez E, López-Fuertes L, Gonzalo R, Gherardi MM, Esteban M. The combination of DNA vectors expressing IL-12+ IL-18 elicits high protective immune response against cutaneous leishmaniasis after priming with DNA-p36/LACK and the cytokines, followed by a booster with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing p36/LACK. Microbes and infection 2003; 5(2): 73-84. [DOI:10.1016/S1286-4579(02)00077-1]
233. Perez-Jimenez E, Kochan G, Gherardi MM, Esteban M. MVA-LACK as a safe and efficient vector for vaccination against leishmaniasis. Microbes and infection 2006; 8(3): 810-822. [DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.10.004]
234. Dondji B, Pérez-Jimenez E, Goldsmith-Pestana K, Esteban M, McMahon-Pratt D. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the LACK antigen protects against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and immunity 2005; 73(8): 5286-5289. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.8.5286-5289.2005]
235. Lange UG, Mastroeni P, Blackwell JM, Stober CB. DNA-Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primer-booster vaccination biases towards T helper 1 responses and enhances protection against Leishmania major infection in mice. Infection and immunity 2004; 72(8): 4924-4928. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.72.8.4924-4928.2004]
236. Rafati S, Zahedifard F, Nazgouee F. Prime-boost vaccination using cysteine proteinases type I and II of Leishmania infantum confers protective immunity in murine visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2006; 24(12): 2169-2175. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.011]
237. Rafati S, Zahedifard F, Azari MK, Taslimi Y, Taheri T. Leishmania infantum: prime boost vaccination with C-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase type I displays both type 1 and 2 immune signatures in BALB/c mice. Experimental parasitology 2008; 118(3): 393-401. [DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2007.10.004]
238. Khoshgoo N, Zahedifard F, Azizi H, Taslimi Y, Alonso MJ, Rafati S. Cysteine proteinase type III is protective against Leishmania infantum infection in BALB/c mice and highly antigenic in visceral leishmaniasis individuals. Vaccine 2008; 26(46): 5822-5829. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.065]
239. Iborra S, Soto M, Carrión J, Nieto A, Fernández E, Alonso C, Requena JM. The Leishmania infantum acidic ribosomal protein P0 administered as a DNA vaccine confers protective immunity to Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Infection and immunity 2003; 71(11): 6562-6572. [DOI:10.1128/IAI.71.11.6562-6572.2003]
240. Teixeira C, Gomes R, Collin N, Reynoso D, Jochim R, Oliveira F, Seitz A, Elnaiem D-E, Caldas A, Paula de Souza A, Brodskyn C, Indiani de Oliveira C, Mendonca I, Costa CHN, Volf P, Barral A, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG. Discovery of markers of exposure specific to bites of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. PloS neglected tropical diseases 2010; 4(3): e638. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000638]
241. Souza AP, Andrade BB, Aquino D, Entringer P, Miranda JC, Alcantara R, Ruiz D, Soto M, Teixeira CR, Valenzuela GJ, Indiani de Oliveira C, Brodskyn CI, Barral-Netto M, Barral A. Using recombinant proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva to estimate human vector exposure in visceral Leishmaniasis endemic areas. PloS neglected tropical diseasess 2010; 4(3): e649. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000649]
242. Soares BR, Souza AP, Prates DB, de Oliveira CI, Barral-Netto M, Miranda JC, Barral A. Seroconversion of sentinel chickens as a biomarker for monitoring exposure to visceral leishmaniasis. Scientific reports 2013; 3: 2352. [DOI:10.1038/srep02352]
243. Marzouki S, Abdeladhim M, Abdessalem CB, Oliveira F, Ferjani B, Gilmore D, Louzir H, Valenzuela JG, Ben Ahmed M. Salivary antigen SP32 is the immunodominant target of the antibody response to Phlebotomus papatasi bites in humans. PloS neglected tropical diseasess 2012; 6(11): e1911. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001911]
244. Marzouki S, Kammoun-Rebai W, Bettaieb J, Abdeladhim M, Hadj Kacem S, Abdelkader R, GritliS, Chemkhi J,Aslan H, Kamhawi S, Ben Salah A, Louzir H, Valenzuela JG, Ben Ahmed M. Validation of recombinant salivary protein PpSP32 as a suitable marker of human exposure to Phlebotomuspapatasi, the vector of Leishmania major in Tunisia. Plos neglected tropical diseasess 2015; 9(9): e0003991. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003991]
245. Mondragon-Shem K, Al-Salem WS, Kelly-Hope L, Abdeladhim M, Al-Zahrani MH, Valenzuela JG, et al. Severity of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis is influenced by previous exposure to sandfly bites in Saudi Arabia. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2015; 9(2):e0003449. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003449]
246. Sima M, Ferencova B, Warburg A, Rohousova I, Volf P. Recombinant salivary proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are suitable antigens to measure exposure of domestic animals to sand fly bites. Plos neglected tropical diseasess 2016; 10(3): e0004553. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004553]
247. Drahota J, Martin-Martin I, Sumova P, Rohousova I, Jimenez M, Molina R, Volf P. Recombinant antigens from Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva as markers of canine exposure to visceral leishmaniases Vector. PloS neglected tropical diseasess 2014; 8(1): e2597. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002597]
248. MartõÂn-MartõÂn I, Molina R, RohousÏova I, Drahota J, Volf P, JimeÂnez M. High levels of anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva antibodies in different vertebrate hosts from the re-emerging leishmaniosis focus in Madrid, Spain. Veterinary parasitology 2014; 202(3-4): 207-216. [DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.045]
249. Kostalova T, Lestinova T, Sumova P, Vlkova M, Rohousova I, Berriatua E, Oliva G, Fiorentino E, Scalone A, Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, Volf P. Canine antibodies against salivary recombinant proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A longitudinal study in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis. PloS neglected tropical diseasess 2015; 9(6): e0003855. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003855]
250. Kostalova T, Lestinova T, Maia C, Sumova P, Vlkova M, Willen L, Polanska N, Fiorentino E, Scalone A, Oliva G, Veronesi F Cristóvão JM, Courtenay O, Campino L, Gradoni L, Gramiccia M, Volf P . The recombinant protein rSP03B is a valid antigen for screening dog exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus across foci of canine leishmaniasis. Medical and veterinary entomology 2017; 31(1): 88-93. [DOI:10.1111/mve.12192]
251. MartõÂn-MartõÂn I, Molina R, JimeÂnez M. Kinetics of anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva antibodies in experimentally bitten mice and rabbits. PloS one 2015; 10(11): e0140722. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0140722]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Biomedical Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb