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Abstract:  
Background: In spite of many reports on persistent low CD4 T cell counts and change in immune-related gene expression level in patients with HIV infection, there is still uncertainty about significant association between gene expression level and HIV infection in patients with and without DIR. The aim of this study was to compare the expression level of CD4, CCL5, IFN-γ, STAT1, APOBEC3G, CD45, and ICAM-1 genes in HIV-1-positive patients with and without DIR.
Methods: In this study, 30 HIV-1-positive patients (15 patients with and 15 patients without DIR [control group]) were included. PBMCs of the patients were collected through density radient centrifugation with Ficoll-Hypaque. RNeasy Plus Mini kit was used to extract RNA. Relative expression levels of CD4, CCL5, IFN-γ, STAT1, APOBEC3G, CD45, and ICAM-1 genes were evaluated by real-time PCR.  The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.
Results: CD4 T cell counts were significantly lower in DIR patients than the control group (p < 0.01). While there was no significant difference in the relative expression levels of CD4, CCL5, IFN-γ, STAT1, CD45, and ICAM-1 between patients with DIR and control group, APOBEC3G expression level was significantly higher in the patients with DIR as compare to the control group (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significantly higher APOBEC3G expression level in patients with DIR, suggesting the potential role of APOBEC3G in patients with immunological discordance besides its suppressing role in HIV-1 infection. Confirmation of this hypothesis requires further research.
Keywords: Genes, HIV-1, Immunity, Patients
Type of Study: Full Length | Subject: Molecular Microbiology

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