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Background: Freeze dried bone allograft (FDBA) nanoparticles on a nanofiber membrane may serve as an ideal scaffold for bone regeneration. This study aimed to assess the biological behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in terms of proliferation and adhesion to nanoparticulate and microparticulate FDBA scaffolds on poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofiber membrane. Methods: In this experimental study, PLLA nanofiber scaffolds were synthesized by the electrospinning method. The FDBA nanoparticles were synthesized mechanically. The FDBA nanoparticles and micro-particles were loaded on the surface of PLLA nanofiber membrane. A total of 64 scaffold samples in four groups of n-FDBA/PLLA, FDBA/PLLA, PLLA and control were placed in 24-well polystyrene tissue culture plates; 16 wells were allocated to each group. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test. Results: The proliferation rate of MSCs was significantly higher in the nanoparticulate group compared with the microparticulate group at 5 days (P=0.034). Assessment of cell morphology at 24 hours revealed spindle-shaped cells with higher number of appendages in the nanoparticulate group compared with other groups. Conclusion: MSCs on n-FDBA/PLLA scaffold were morphologically more active and flatter with higher number of cellular appendages compared with FDBA/PLLA. It seems that the nanoparticulate scaffold is superior to the microparticulate scaffold in terms of proliferation, attachment and morphology of MSCs in vitro.

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