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Abstract:  
Background: Any irregularities in self-renewal/differentiation balance in endometriotic MSCs can change their fate and function, resulting in endometriosis development. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of OCT4 transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1), SOX2, and NANOG in endometriotic MSCs to show their aberrant expression and to support self-renewal/differentiation imbalance in these cells. Methods: MSCs were isolated from three endometriotic and three normal endometrium samples and characterized and analyzed for the expressions of OCT4A, OCT4B, OCT4B1, SOX2, and NANOG using the qRT-PCR. Results: The expressions of OCT4 transcripts and NANOG increased significantly in endometriotic MSCs, whereas SOX2 expression did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Our findings provide further evidence for confirming the self-renewal/ differentiation imbalance in endometriotic MSCs, as the main underlying cause of endometriosis development. This study also paves the way for further research on endometriosis treatment by focusing on endometriotic
stem cells.

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