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Aging, as a major risk factor of memory deficiency, affects neural signaling pathways in hippocampus. In particular, age-dependent androgens deficiency causes cognitive impairments. Several enzymes are involved in memory deficiency like PKC. Indeed, PKC regulatory process mediates α-secretase activation to cleave APP in β-amyloid cascade and tau proteins phosphorylation mechanism.  Androgens,  and cortisol  regulate PKC signaling pathways, affecting the modulation of RACK1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling pathway depends on CREB activity in hippocampal neurons and is involved in regulatory processes via PKC and androgens. Therefore, testosterone and PKC contribute in neuronal apoptosis. The present review summarizes the current status of androgens, PKC, and their influence on cognitive learning. Inconsistencies in experimental investigations related to this fundamental correlation are also discussed, with emphasis on the mentioned contributors  as the probable potent candidates for learning and memory improvement.
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Related Fields

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