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Ibuprofen-Loaded CTS/nHA/nBG Scaffolds for the Applications of Hard Tissue Engineering
Pawan Kumar * , Brijnandan S. Dehiya , Anil Sindhu
Abstract:  
Background: This study addressed the development of biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds with enhanced biomechanical characteristics. The biocompatibility and the cationic nature of chitosan (CTS) make it more effective as a bone grafting material. Methods: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and bioglass (nBG) (50% SiO2-45% CaO-5% P2O5) was synthesized using sol-gel method. The ibuprofen-loaded CTS/nHA and CTS/nBG scaffolds were fabricated by using freeze-drying method. Results: Transmission electron microscopy image of nHA and nBG revealed the particles of less than 200 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of CTS/nHA and CTS/nBG scaffolds showed pore sizes ranging from 84-190 µm. The physiochemical characteristics of synthesized ceramic nanoparticles and scaffolds analyzed by XRD were confirmed by ICDD 9-432. The porosity of scaffolds was measured by using SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and Archimedes’ principle. The open porosities of CTS/nBG and CTS/nHA samples were 29% and 31%, respectively. The compressive strength of scaffolds was evaluated by stress vs. strain curve. The CTS/nHA scaffold revealed 4% more water retention capacity than CTS/nBG scaffold. In the presence of lysozyme, CTS/nBG scaffold degraded 32.8%, while CTS/nHA degraded 26.1% in PBS solution at pH 7.4. The density of all scaffolds was found (1.9824 g/cm-3 and 1.9338 g/cm-3) to be nearly similar to that of the dry bone (0.8-1.2 g/cm-3). Fibroblast cells multiplied two times in the sample medium of CTS/nBG after 14 days. After 72 h, CTS/nBG and CTS/nHA scaffolds demonstrated 52% and 46% drug release, respectively. Conclusion: Based on our findings, ibuprofen-loaded scaffolds could be an effective drug delivery system for tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: Chitosan, Fibroblast, Ibuprofen, Nanoparticles
Full-Text [PDF 1421 kb]      
Type of Study: Full Length | Subject: Tissue Engineering and Cell Biology
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