Volume 24, Issue 5 (9-2020)                   IBJ 2020, 24(5): 264-268 | Back to browse issues page

PMID: 33009769

XML Print

Rabies constantly kills 59,000 people annually, mostly in Asia and Africa. Rabies, which is responsible for 99% of human rabies cases, is totally preventable by standard vaccinations. In 2015, a global call for action was made by the World Health Organization, World Organization for Animal Health, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control to join forces toward the elimination of dog-transmitted human rabies by the year 2030. All the tools and protocols to reach that target are readily available, and the feasibility of dog rabies elimination has been proven. Countries should drive the changes needed to engage into this global movement. Certainly, countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region require taking more critical steps to reach the rabies elimination target by 2030. The international awareness campaign of the World Rabies Day is an excellent occasion to assess challenges and opportunities toward rabies elimination.
Type of Study: Perspective Review | Subject: Related Fields

1. World Health Organization. Rabies. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/rabies/en/.
2. Hampson K, Coudeville L, Lembo T, Sambo M, Kieffer A, Attlan M, Barrat J, D Blanton J, Debor Briggs DJ, Cleaveland S, Costa P, Freuling CM, Hiby E, Knopf L, Leanes F, Meslin FX, Artem Metlin A, Miranda ME, Müller T, Nel LH, Recuenco S, Rupprecht CE, Schumacher C, Taylor L, Vigilato MAN, Zinsstag J, Dushoff J, Global Alliance for Rabies Control Partners for Rabies. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies. PLoS neglected Tropical disease 2015; 9(4): e0003709. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003709]
3. Bannazadeh Baghi H, Alinezhad F, Kuzmin I, Rupprecht CE. A Perspective on Rabies in the Middle East-Beyond Neglect. Veterinary sciences 2018; 5(3): 67. [DOI:10.3390/vetsci5030067]
4. Dellicour S, Troupin C, Jahanbakhsh F, Salama A, Massoudi S, Moghaddam M, Baele G, Lemey P, Gholami A, Bourhy H. Using phylogeographic approaches to analyse the dispersal history, velocity and direction of viral lineages-Application to rabies virus spread in Iran. Molecular ecology 2019; 28(18): 4335-4350. [DOI:10.1111/mec.15222]
5. Abela-Ridder B, Martin S, Gongai G, Engels D. Rabies vaccine stockpile: fixing the supply chain. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2016. 94(9): 635A-635A. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.16.183012]
6. Fahiron SA, Mikhailov A, Abela-Ridder B, Giacinti J, Harriesa J. Human rabies transmitted by dogs: current status of global data, 2015. Weekly epidemiological record 2016. 91(2): 13-20.
7. Al Abaidani I, Al Abri S, Parkash KP, Hussain MH, Hussain MH, Al Rawahi AH. Epidemiology of rabies in Oman: a retrospective study (1991-2013). Eastern mediterranean health journal 2015; 21(8): 591-597. [DOI:10.26719/2015.21.8.591]
8. Picot V, Rasuli A, Abella-Rider A, Saadatian-Elahi M, Aikimbayev A, Barkia A, Benmaiz S, Bouslama Z, De Balogh K, Dehove A, Davlyatov F, Farahtaj F, Gongal G, Gholami A, Imnadze P, Issad M, Khoufi S, Nedosekov V, Rafila A, Rich H, Soufi A, Tuychiev J, Vranjes N, Vodopija R, Zaouia I, Nel L. The Middle East and Eastern Europe rabies Expert Bureau (MEEREB) third meeting: Lyon-France (7-8 April, 2015). Journal of infection and public health 2017; 10(6): 695-701. [DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2017.03.005]
9. WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository (Eastern Mediterranean Region). Reported number of human rabies deaths Data by country. 2019. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main-emro. NTDRABIESHUMANDEATHS?lang=en.
10. The FAO-OIE-WHO Collaboration. Tripartite Concept Note: Sharing responsibilities and coordinating global activities to address health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interfaces. 2010. Available from https:// www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/tripartite_concept_note_hanoi_042011_en.pdf?ua=1.
11. Abela Ridder, B. Zero by 30: the global strategic plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Switzerland. World Health Organization. 2018.
12. Abela Ridder, B. 10-11 December 2015. Global elimination of dog-mediated human rabies, report of the Rabies Global Conference. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/rabies/resources/ who_htm_ntd_nzd_2016.02/en/..
13. Vigilato MA, Cosivi O, Knöbl T, Clavijo A, Silva HMT. Rabies update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerging infectious diseases 2013; 19(4): p. 678-679. [DOI:10.3201/eid1904.121482]
14. Millien MF, Pierre-Louis JB, Wallace R, Caldas E, Rwangabgoba JM, Poncelet JL, Cosivi O, Del Rio Vilas VJ. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 2015; 9(6): e0003806. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003806]
15. Coetzer A, Kidane AH, Bekele M, Hundera AD, Pieracci EG, Shiferaw ML, Wallace R, Nel LH. The SARE tool for rabies control: Current experience in Ethiopia. Antiviral research 2016; 135: 74-80. [DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.09.011]
16. Caninerabiesblueprint. 2017. Available from: https://caninerabiesblueprint.org/.
17. WHO regional office for south-east Asia. 26-28 June 2019. Workshop on Enhancing Progress Towards Rabies Elimination 'Zero by 30' in the SAARC Region. Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved from http://www.searo. who.int/entity/rabies/workshop-enhancing-progress-towards-rabies-elimination/en/.
18. Kassir MF, Zarif TE, Kassir G, Berry A, Musharrafieh U, Bizri AR. Human rabies control in Lebanon: a call for action. Epidemiology and infection 2019; 147: e46. [DOI:10.1017/S095026881800300X]
19. World Health Organization. 16-19 December 2018. Summary report on the Intercountry meeting on the strategic framework for prevention and control of emerging and epidemic-prone diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Amman, Jordan. Retrieved form http://applications.emro.who.int/docs/IC_meet_rep_2019_22362_en.pdf?ua=1.
20. Dodet B, Asian Rabies Expert Bureau (AREB). An important date in rabies history. Vaccine 2007. 25(52): 8647-8650. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.10.004]
21. Balaram D, Taylor LH, Doyle KAS, Davidson E, Nel LH. World Rabies Day-a decade of raising awareness. Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines 2016; 2: 19. [DOI:10.1186/s40794-016-0035-8]
22. Gavi The Vaccine Alliance. Vaccine investment strategy. 2018. Available from: https://www.gavi.org/ our-alliance/strategy/vaccine-investment-strategy.
23. Davlin SL, Vonville HM. Canine rabies vaccination and domestic dog population characteristics in the developing world: a systematic review. Vaccine 2012. 30(24): 3492-3502. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.069]
24. Hiby E, Atema KN, Brimley R, Hammond-Seaman A, Rowan A, Fogelberg E, Kennedy M, Balaram D, Nel L, Cleaveland S, Hampson K, Townsend S, Lembo T, Rooney N, Whay HR, Pritchard J, Murray J, van Dijk L, Waran N, Bacon H, Knobel D, Tasker L, Baker C, Hiby L. Scoping review of indicators and methods of measurement used to evaluate the impact of dog population management interventions. BMC veterinary research 2017; 13: 143. [DOI:10.1186/s12917-017-1051-2]
25. WHO expert consultation on rabies. Third edition. Switzerland: World health organization; 2018.
26. Darkaoui S, Cliquet F, Wasniewski M, Robarset E, Aboulfidaa N, Bouslikhane M, Fassi-Fihri O. A century spent combating rabies in Morocco (1911-2015): How much longer? Frontiers in veterinary science 2017; 4: 78. [DOI:10.3389/fvets.2017.00078]
27. Gholami A, Fayaz A, Farahtaj F. Rabies in Iran: Past, Present and Future. Journal of medical microbiology and infectious diseases 2014; 2(1): 1-10.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.