Volume 25, Issue 2 (3-2021)                   ibj 2021, 25(2): 116-117 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahamooz-Haghighi S, Bagheri K, Danafar H, Sharafi A. Anti-Proliferative Properties, Biocompatibility, and Chemical Composition of Different Extracts of Plantago major Medicinal Plant. ibj. 2021; 25 (2) :116-117
URL: http://ibj.pasteur.ac.ir/article-1-3074-en.html
Background: To study the anticancer activity of Plantago major, we assessed the effect of ethanolic, methanolic and acetonic extracts of this plant on HCT-116, SW-480, and HEK-293 cell lines as control. Methods: The cytotoxic activity, biocompatibility, and toxicity were evaluated by MTT assay, hemolysis, and Artemia salina-LD50 (on mice) tests, respectively. The analysis of the extracts was performed by GC-MS analysis. Results: The results showed that all the extracts had the most antiproliferative properties on the HCT-116 cell line. The P. major root extract  was more effective than the aerial parts, and IC50 values for ethanolic, methanolic and acetonic root extracts were 405.59, 470.16, and 82.26 µg/mL, respectively on HCT-116 cell line at 72 h. Hemolysis degree of the ethanolic extract of  aerial and root parts were approximately 1% at 400 μg/mL.. Using the ethanolic extracts, the Artemia survived every concentration, and no toxicity was observed. One week after the oral administration of different parts of P. major extracts, none of the mice died, even those were administered 2000 mg/kg. The results of GC/MS analysis showed that P. major extracts contain potential anticancer compounds, such as stearic acid (8.61%) in aerial parts of methanolic extract and 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl)ester (88.07% and 40.63%) in aerial and root parts of acetonic extract of P. major. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the P. major is a source of potential compounds with antiproliferative properties.
Type of Study: Full Length | Subject: Related Fields

1. Powis G. Dose-dependent metabolism, therapeutic effect, and toxicity of anticancer drugs in man. Drug metabolism reviews 1983; 14(6): 1145-1163. [DOI:10.3109/03602538308991425]
2. Rajkumar V, Gunjan G, Ashok Kumar R, Lazar M. Evaluation of cytotoxic potential of Acorus calamus rhizome. Ethnobotanical leaflets 2009; 7: Article 2.
3. Gali-Muhtasib H, Bakkar N. Modulating cell cycle: current applications and prospects for future drug development. Current cancer drug targets 2002; 2(4): 309-336. [DOI:10.2174/1568009023333809]
4. Wang H, Zhao C, Huang Y, Wang F, Li Y. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of plantaginis herba. Hong Kong medicinal journal 2015; 22: 29-35.
5. Najafian Y, Hamedi SS, Farshchi MK, Feyzabadi Z. Plantago major in traditional persian medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review. Electronic physician 2018; 10(2): 6390-6399. [DOI:10.19082/6390]
6. Radu N, Ghita I, Coman O, Rau I. Therapeutic effect of flavonoids derived from Plantago species. Molecular crystals and liquid crystals 2010; 523(1): 273-281. [DOI:10.1080/15421401003723003]
7. Radu N, Ghita I, Rau I. Therapeutic effect of polysaccharides from Plantago species. molecular crystals liquid crystals 2010; 523(1): 236-246. [DOI:10.1080/15421401003723078]
8. Dalar A, Türker M, Konczak I. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of Malva neglecta Wallr. and Plantago lanceolata L. from Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Journal of herbal medicine 2012; 2: 42-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2012.03.001]
9. Afifi M, Salama O, Hassan M, Naeim Z, Mohammed K. Phenolic constituents of Plantago albicans L. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2000; 16(2): 204-212.
10. Samuelsen AB. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2000; 71(1-2): 1-21. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00212-9]
11. Rønsted N, Göbel E, Franzyk H, Jensen SR, Olsen CE. Chemotaxonomy of Plantago. Iridoid glucosides and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides. Phytochemistry 2000; 55(4): 337-348. [DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00306-X]
12. Taskova R, Evstatieva L, Handjieva N, Popov S. Iridoid patterns of genus Plantago L. and their systematic significance. Zeitschrift für naturforschung C. 2002; 57(1-2): 42-50. [DOI:10.1515/znc-2002-1-208]
13. Janković T, Menković N, Zdunić G, Beara I, Balog K, et al. Quantitative determination of aucubin in seven Plantago species using HPLC, HPTLC, and LC-ESI-MS methods. Analytical letters 2010; 43(16): 2487-2495. [DOI:10.1080/00032711003725581]
14. Akihisa T, Yasukawa K, Tokuda H. Potentially cancer chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory terpenoids from natural sources. Studies in natural products chemistry 2003; 29: 73-126. [DOI:10.1016/S1572-5995(03)80005-4]
15. Hertog MG, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in The Netherlands. Nutrition and cancer 1993; 20: 21-29. [DOI:10.1080/01635589309514267]
16. Gálvez M, Martín-Cordero C, López-Lazaro M, Cortés F, Ayuso MJ. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2003; 88(2-3): 125-130. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00192-2]
17. Sugiyarto AD, Dwisetyawani A, Pitoyo A. Estimasi kemelim pahan dan distribusi Plantago major L. di Gunung Lawu. Biodiversitas 2006; 7(2): 143-146. [DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d070211]
18. Krishnaveni M, Dhanalakshmi R, Nandhini N. GC-MS analysis of phytochemicals, fatty acid profile, antimicrobial activity of Gossypium seeds. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences review and research 2014; 27(1): 273-276.
19. Holetz FB, Pessini GL, Sanches NR, Cortez DAG, Nakamura CV, Dias Filho BP. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 2002; 97(7): 1027-1031. [DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762002000700017]
20. Chiang LC, Chiang W, Chang MY, Lin CC. In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica. American journal chinese medicine 2003; 31(2): 225-234. [DOI:10.1142/S0192415X03000874]
21. Velasco-Lezama R, Tapia-Aguilar R, Román-Ramos R, Vega-Avila E, Pérez-Gutiérrez MS. Effect of Plantago major on cell proliferation in vitro. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2006; 103(1): 36-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.050]
22. Shipochliev T. Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants. Veterinarno meditsinski nauki 1981; 18(4): 94-98.
23. Lithander A. Intracellular fluid of waybread (Plantago major) as a prophylactic for mammary cancer in mice. Tumor biology 1992; 13(3): 138-141. [DOI:10.1159/000217757]
24. Hetland G, Samuelsen AB, Løvik M, Paulsen BS, Aaberge IS, Groeng EC, Michaelsen TE. Protective effect of Plantago major L. Pectin polysaccharide against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Scandinavian journal immunology 2000; 52(4): 348-355. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3083.2000.00793.x]
25. Ozaslan M, Didem Karagöz I, Kalender ME, Kilic IH, Sari I, Karagöz A. In vivo antitumoral effect of Plantago major L. extract on BALB/C mouse with Ehrlich ascites tumor. American journal of chinese medicine 2007; 35(5): 841-851. [DOI:10.1142/S0192415X07005314]
26. Rahamooz-Haghighi S, Asadi MH. Anti-proliferative effect of the extracts and essential oil of Pimpinella anisum on gastric cancer cells. Journal of herbmed pharmacology 2016; 5(4): 157-161.
27. Plumb JA. Cell Sensitivity Assays. In: Langdon SP eds. Cancer Cell Culture. Methods in Molecular Medicine™. Vol 88. Humana Press. Retreived from: [DOI:10.1385/ 1-59259-406-9:165.]
28. Aghajanzadeh M, Zamani M, Rashidzadeh H, Rostamizadeh K, Sharafi A, Danafar H. Amphiphilic Y shaped miktoarm star copolymer for anticancer hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs codelivery: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro, and in vivo biocompatibility study. Journal of biomedical materials research part a 2018; 106(11): 2817-2826. [DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.36468]
29. Rajabi S, Ramazani A, Hamidi M, Naji T. Artemia salina as a model organism in toxicity assessment of nanoparticles. Daru 2015; 23(1): 20. [DOI:10.1186/s40199-015-0105-x]
30. OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals acute oral toxicity- up and down procedure (UDP). Reterieved from: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264 071049-en.pdf?expires=1611038404&id=id&accname =guest&checksum=4BD111B77C5C007B934ABFE2B1B45663
31. Jamilah J, Sharifa ASA, Sharifah NR. GC-MS analysis of various extracts from leaf of Plantago major used as traditional medicine. World applied sciences journal 2012; 17: 67-70.
32. Bashford JN, Norwood J, Chapman SR. Why are patients prescribed proton pump inhibitors? Retrospective analysis of link between morbidity and prescribing in the general practice research database. British medical journal 1998; 317 (7156): 452-456. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.317.7156.452]
33. Ikawati Z, Wahyuono S, Maeyama K. Screening of several Indonesian medicinal plants for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2001; 75(2-3): 249-256. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00201-X]
34. Yeşilada E, Sezik E, Fujita T, Tanaka S, Tabata M. Screening of some Turkish medicinal plants for their antiulcerogenic activities. Phytotherapy research 1993; 7(3): 263-265. [DOI:10.1002/ptr.2650070313]
35. Chiang LC, Ng LT, Chiang W, Chang MY, Lin CC. Immunomodulatory activities of flavonoids, monoterpenoids, triterpenoids, iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds of Plantago species. Planta medica 2003; 69(07): 600-604. [DOI:10.1055/s-2003-41113]
36. Kobeasy I, Abdel-Fatah M, El-Salam SMA, Mohamed ZEOM. Biochemical studies on Plantago major L. and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. International journal of biodiversity and conservation 2011; 3(3): 83-91.
37. Sutrisna E, Maskoen AM, Sujatno M, Sastramihardja HS. Potential apoptotic effect of Plantain extract (Plantago major L.) through increasing of caspase-3 level on hypergastrinemic rat model. International journal of research in pharmaceutical sciences and nanotechnology 2013; 2(3): 371-381.
38. Atta AH, Soad N, Samar M. Potential protective effect of some plant extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. African journal of traditional complementary alternative medicines 2006; 3(3): 1-9. [DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v3i3.31162]
39. Mirzaei M, Mirzaei A. Comparison of the Artemia salina and Artemia uramiana bioassays for toxicity of 4 Iranian medicinal plants. International research journal of biological sciences 2013; 2(3): 49-54.
40. Amin K, Dannenfelser RM. In vitro hemolysis: guidance for the pharmaceutical scientist. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2006; 95(6): 1173-1176. [DOI:10.1002/jps.20627]
41. Femi-Adepojua AG, Adepojub AO, Durodolac FA, Abiola AGM. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and bio-active component analysis of Platycerium superbum (L.) methanolic extract. International journal of sciences: basic and applied research 2018; 40: 98-107.
42. Chen W, Vermaak I, Viljoen A. Camphor-a fumigant during the black death and a coveted fragrant wood in ancient Egypt and Babylon-a review. Molecules 2013; 18(5): 5434-5454. [DOI:10.3390/molecules18055434]
43. Šála M, De Palma AM, Hřebabecký H, Nencka R, Dračínský M, Leyssen P, Neyts J, Holý A. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel coxsackievirus B3 inhibitors. Bioorganic and medicinal chemistry 2010; 18(12): 4374-4384. [DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2010.04.081]
44. Armaka M, Papanikolaou E, Sivropoulou A, Arsenakis M. Antiviral properties of isoborneol, a potent inhibitor of Herpes simplex virus type 1. Antiviral research 1999; 43(2): 79-92. [DOI:10.1016/S0166-3542(99)00036-4]
45. Govindappa M, Prathap S, Vinay V, Channabasava R. Chemical composition of methanol extract of endophytic fungi, Alternaria sp. of Tebebuia argentea and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. International journal of biological and pharmaceutical research 2014; 5(11): 861-869.
46. Kusch P, Deininger S, Specht S, Maniako R, Haubrich S, Pommerening T, Lin PKT, Hoerauf A, Kaiser A. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity assays of seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: compounds of the extract show growth inhibition and activity against plasmodial aminopeptidase. Journal of parasitology research 2011; 2011: 368692. [DOI:10.1155/2011/368692]
47. Ahmed D. Biological activities of characterized isolates of n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaves. Nature and science 2013; 11(5): 141-147.
48. Nebes RD, Pollock BG, Houck PR, Butters MA, Mulsant BH, Zmuda MD, Reynolds 3rd CF. Persistence of cognitive impairment in geriatric patients following antidepressant treatment: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial with nortriptyline and paroxetine. Journal of psychiatric research 2003; 37(2): 99-108. [DOI:10.1016/S0022-3956(02)00085-7]
49. Benali T, Habbadi K, Abdelmajid K, Marmouzi I, Zengin G, Bouyahya A, Chamkhi I, Chtibi H, Tarik A, Achbani E, Hammani K. GC-MS analysis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Achillea Odorata Subsp. Pectinata and ruta montana essential oils and their potential use as food preservatives. Foods 2020; 9(5): 668. [DOI:10.3390/foods9050668]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Biomedical Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb