:: Volume 20, Issue 5 (11-2016) ::
ibj 2016, 20(5): 266-272 Back to browse issues page
Facilitation of Hippocampal Kindling and Exacerbation of Kindled Seizures by Intra-CA1 Injection of Quinine: A Possible Role of Cx36 Gap Junctions
Fatemeh Etemadi, Mohammad Sayyah *, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Vahab Babapour

Background: GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area are mutually communicated by gap junctions (GJs) composed of connexin36 (Cx36). We examined the role of Cx36 in CA1 in manifestation of kindled seizures and hippocampal kindling in rats. Methods: Quinine, as the specific blocker of Cx36, was injected into CA1, and kindled seizures severity was examined 10 min afterward. Moreover, quinine was injected into CA1 once daily, and the rate of CA1 kindling was recorded. Results: Quinine 0.5 and 1 mM caused 2- and 3.5-fold increase in
the duration of total seizure behavior and generalized the seizures. Primary and secondary afterdischarges (AD) were also significantly increased. Quinine 0.1 mM augmented the rate of kindling and the growth of secondary AD. Conclusion: Cx36 GJs in CA1 are the main components of hippocampal inhibitory circuit. Any interruption
in this path by pathologic or physical damages can trigger hippocampal hyperexcitability and facilitate epileptogenesis. to determine its active components precisely where four dominant fractions obtained at retention time of 156-160 minutes. The phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities of the purified fractions were first evaluated. Then the anti-viral activity was measured using single cycle HIV (NL4-3) replication and HSV (KOS) plaque reduction assays. Results: The H. lepturus crude venom inhibited HIV replication by 73% at the concentration of 200 µg/ml, while it did not show significant anti-HSV activity. It also inhibited the cell-free viral particles in a virucidal assay, while it showed no toxicity for the target cells in a proliferation assay. The four HPLC fractions purified from H. lepturus inhibited HIV with IC50 of 20 µg/ml. Conclusion: H. lepturus venom contains components with considerable anti-HIV activity insofar as it has virucidal activity that offers a novel therapeutic approach against HIV infection. Our results suggest a promising pilot for anti-HIV drug discovery with H. lepturus scorpion venom.

Keywords: CA1, Connexin36, Gap junctions, Kindling, Quinine
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Type of Study: Full Length | Subject: Related Fields

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Volume 20, Issue 5 (11-2016) Back to browse issues page